Olga Ivanovna Briuzgina (*1957)
Bryzgina Olga Ivanivna works at the all-Russian Museum of decorative, applied and folk art in Moscow. The curator of the Museum’s collection of Russian jewelry art of the XVII – XX centuries, and collections of folk arts and crafts. Author of publications, catalogues and articles on the history of jewelry art in Russia. Author of television and exhibition projects, lectures and excursions of specialized educational programs of the Museum. Expert of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, member of the international expert organization NOEKSI.
Imperial Easter eggs by Carl Faberge
Jewelry Firm of Carl Faberge is one of the leaders in the jewelry industry of the Russian Empire of late XIX – early XX century. An important direction in the advertising and activities of the company was the creation of unique artistic solutions of exclusive products for members of the Russian Imperial family. These works were distinguished by the complexity of the design and were devoted to important events in the life of the Emperor and his family. The most famous works of jewelry created by masters and artists of the company from 1885 to 1917 were Easter eggs, which every year at Easter the Emperors of the Russian Empire gave to their spouses as personal congratulations. These Easter gifts, despite their intimacy, reflected important milestones in the history of not only the Royal family, but also the whole of Russia. A total of 52 Imperial eggs were created, but they became an exceptional phenomenon in the history of the
company and jewelry art of Russia. Today, the Imperial Easter eggs of Carl fabergé company is one of the most famous brands in the history of the world jewelry art.
Dušan Buran (*1969)
He graduated in art history from the Faculty of Arts of Comenius University in Bratislava (received M.A. in 1992) and from the Technical University in Berlin (PhD. 2000). Currently, he works as a curator of the Gothic Art Collection and the chief curator of the Old Masters Collection in Bratislava.
Buran is mainly concerned with medieval sculpture and painting, and partly with 20th century art and architecture, issues of museology and monument care. He is the editor of the book The History of Slovak Fine Arts – Gothic Art, curator of the exhibition of the same title (SNG Bratislava 2003 – 2004), and author and co-author of several exhibition projects at home and abroad, recently D’or et de feu. Art au fin du Moyen Age en Slovaquie (Musée de Cluny Paris 2010 – 2011); Blood (SNG Bratislava 2011 – 2012); Art and Nature of Medieval Europe (SNM Bratislava Castle 2013 – 2014); Non-Permanent Exhibition (SNG Bratislava 2014); Master of Okoličné and the Gothic Art of Spiš around 1500 (SNG Bratislava 2018); as well as many
articles in both the domestic and foreign specialist press. He has cooperated on international projects for the Metropolitan Museum New York; Szépmüvészeti Museum Budapest; National Gallery Prague, and GASK Kutná Hora. In 2012 – 2018 he was the Chairman of the Slovak National Committee of the International Council of Museums (ICOM).
The Golden Middle Ages
In contrast to the familiar cliché of the “Dark Ages”, the areas of gold use in the period around 400 – 1400 seemingly proved the contrary. In addition to its use in the field of goldsmithing, gold was ubiquitous, appearing in textiles, paintings, sculptures, and architecture. It was because of its properties that gold became a metaphor of luxury and spiritual value in the Early Middle Ages, allowing the believers to materialise the metallic surfaces of artefacts before their very eyes.
The paper focuses on the advanced phase of “Gothic gold”, attempting to establish its basic categories and to uncover the context beyond the conventions of traditional technologies. It is concluded with a brief excursion into 20th century art – more precisely into its media, which can clearly be regarded as the heritage of the Middle Ages.
Erika Hrašková (*1970)
She graduated from the Department of Archaeology and the Department of Ethnology of the Faculty of Arts at Comenius University in Bratislava (1992 – 1997). After completing additional external courses and acquiring professional qualifications for archaeological and architectural- historical research, she worked as an expert adviser for the Bratislava Monuments Board (1997 – 2007). Since 2007 she has been a professional guarantor at Ithaka BB Ltd. dealing with monument research, consultancy and management in the field of monument conservation and restoration. The most important projects she was involved in include the restoration of Vígľaš Castle, Halič Castle, and the manor house at Divín, as well as monument research and coordination of the reconstruction of Liptay Villa at Tatranská Lomnica, to name but a few. Apart from fieldwork, she is also involved in publishing and educational activities.
Occurrence of Gold Objects in Archaeological Finds in Slovakia
A Brief Overview and Evaluation
The lecture is devoted to the occurrence of gold found in various forms in archaeological finds on the territory of Slovakia in different time periods. It surveys the most important finds of gold objects from the oldest to those from the modern period, and clarifies the function and importance of gold objects in particular archaeological finds (graves, deposits, etc.). The lecture traces the use of gold as a form of decoration for wealthy classes or property depository. It deals with the issue of numerous occurrences of gold-plated pieces made of silver and other materials as substitutes for the valuable precious metal.
Ivana Šusterová (*1989)
She graduated in ethnology from the Department of Ethnology and Folklore Studies at the University of Constantine the Philosopher in Nitra (2014) with a master’s degree. It was in Nitra that she came into contact with the Wallachian Roma and developed a deep interest in this community, acquiring comprehensive knowledge. She completed her work placement at the
Museum of Romany Culture in Brno. At present she is a doctoral student of the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology in Bratislava, and uses her experience at the Office of the Plenipotentiary of the Government of the Slovak Republic for the Roma Communities. She has written several articles and studies dealing with various aspects of the family and social life of the Wallachian Roma. Since 2013, she has published articles in the Romano nevo ľil periodical. Her findings were recorded in the book Život olašských žien (The Life of Wallachian Women, VEDA, 2015). The results of her research on Romani women practising magic in Romania are available in the book Ženy predávajúce nádej (Women Selling Hope, PositiF, 2017), produced in co-operation with the photographer Lucia Sekerková.
From Franz Josef to Versace – Jewellery in the Life of Wallachian Roma
The Wallachian Roma are perceived in the public and frequently presented in the media through their gold jewellery. When searching for information about this particular Roma group in the media, you can come across such headlines: “The Golden Gipsies”, “The Leader’s Deputy Received a Gold Tie Worth Thousands of Euro” or “His Majesty Robert I: The Roman King Has Inherited as Much Gold as He Weighs!”. Gold jewellery is a way of demonstrating the status and wealth of a particular Roma man, woman or the entire family. It expresses their taste and signifies their valuable personal possession. The paper expounds on different types of jewellery (earrings, rings, chains, bracelets, hair clips…), their development and occasions when these objects are presented as gifts. All this describes in a broader context the lives of the Wallachian Roma, their internal norms and established rules.
Karla Frajerová (*1983)
She studied goldsmithing – jewellery at the Secondary Modern School (1999 – 2002) and also attended the course on gemstone setting. While working for the Ryalo goldsmith company, currently Alo Diamonds, specialising in the production of jewellery, she acquired invaluable practical experience in her branch of study. She then pursued her studies in the field of artistic craftsmanship (completed in 2004) and simultaneously took an advanced course in gemstone setting. Apart from this, she worked part-time in the antique department of Interantik Dr. Pšenský in Prague. Subsequently, she enrolled in a bachelor’s degree course in Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Heritage – Metal Artworks at the Faculty of Chemical Technology (2006 – 2010). After completing her studies, she worked for Monika Vianello antique shop in Prague, and later for a goldsmithing firm, specialising in jewellery production, and made jewellery models. At the same time she began to study for the Master’s degree in Museology at Masaryk University in Brno (2011 – 2013). She currently works at the Museum of Applied Arts in Prague as a conservator-restorer of art and craft works of metal.
Difficulties in Restoring Jewellery Made of Gold Alloy
The title of this paper introduces the lecture on the theme of “Questions of Authenticity in Conservation and Restoration Interventions into Objects Made of Gold Alloys, and Gilding the Surfaces of Other Metals and Their Alloys”. This is followed by a brief piece of information about the artist’s profile. The theme is further developed within the framework of the ethical code of the restorer. This leads to the objective of restoration and conservation and methods of intervention into the actual object. The degree of preservation of the authenticity of the restored and preserved object plays a fundamental role, determining its subsequent use. In this respect, it is possible to define three basic areas of interventions: 1. The object intended for museum depository purposes and scientific studies. 2. The object intended for museum and exhibition purposes. 3. The object intended for functional purposes. This is followed by a brief comment on each area documented by photographs. The paper addresses the difficulties in gilding the surfaces of other metal alloys.
Petra Matějovičová (*1976)
She graduated in art history from the Institute of Art History of the Faculty of Arts at Charles University in Prague (1995 – 2002). Since 2003 she has been working as a curator of the Collection of Precious Metals and Other Materials at the Museum of Decorative Arts and since 2011 as the chief curator of the Collection of Furniture, Works from Wood, Metal and
Miscellaneous Materials at this museum. Her research work largely focuses on jewellery. She has been involved in a long-term research project entitled The Influence of Ancient Culture on the History of European Jewellery. Apart from working at the museum, her curatorial work
involves contemporary studio jewellery. She cooperates with the Prague KusKovu Gallery and the 4D Group. As a curator of the Museum of Decorative Arts in Prague, she curates the collections of jewellery, tableware and liturgical objects, watches, works made of ivory, wax and
minerals tanging from the Middle Ages to the present. She is the author of the exhibition Baroque Arts and Crafts from the collections of the Museum of Decorative Arts held at the Schwarzenberg Palace in Prague.
Gold on the Intersection with Historical and Contemporary Jewellery